Applications for Radar Test / Electronic Warfare Test

  • Frequency converters e.g. in satellite transponders need to be characterized not only in terms of amplitude transmission but also in terms of phase transmission or group delay, especially with the transition to digital modulation schemes. They often do not provide access to the internal local oscillators This application note describes a method using the R&S ZVA to measure group delay of mixers and frequency converters with an embedded local oscillator very accurately. The key aspect of this new technique is, that the network analyzer applies a 2-tone signal to the frequency converter. By measuring the phase differences between the two signals at the input and at the output, it calculates group delay and relative phase between output and input.

  • The scope of the subject “radar” has expanded in the recent years in terms of its technical evolution and spreading of applications. This application note along with its corresponding white paper 1MA207 show how to use the R&S radar product portfolio to tackle test and measurement tasks in modern radar technology. Target groups are students who want to become familiar with radar issues as well as radar professionals who want to solve certain test and measurement tasks.

  • This application notes introduces the Multi-Standard Radio Analyzer function of the R&S®FSW and shows how it performs the measurement on multi-standard radio transmitters. It reveals interactions caused by the coexistence of signals of different cellular standards and localizes the root cause. With an example of a base station signal consisting of three radio access technologies (GSM/WCDMA/LTE FDD) it shows how easy interactions can be found. The R&S®FSW is the ideal tool for trouble shooting tasks with its combination of a large bandwidth and the versatile Multi-Standard Radio Analyzer in one measurement instrument.

  • The measurement speed for spurious signal measurements is mainly defined by the spectrum analyzer sweep speed. With traditional swept spectrum analyzers and tight spurious limits the measurement can easily take hours or even a full day. This application note describes the differences in sweep speed between swept spectrum analyzers and modern spectrum analyzers with a wide-band FFT process, and how this improves the measurement speed for general spurious measurement.

  • High sampling rate and automatic pulse analysis make the R&S®NRP-Z8x wideband power sensors ideal for time-domain analysis of radar pulses.

  • This Application Note describes testing S-parameters under pulsed conditions with the R&S®ZVA vector network analyzer and either the ZVAX24 Extension unit with pulse modular option or the R&S®SMF signal generator with pulse modulator as a signal source.

    In addition a constant power level calibration for applications requiring high drive power for test and measurement of device under test (DUT) is also included. A LDMOS S-band radar power transistor is used as example DUT. The pulse profile mode of the R&S®ZVA is used to analyze the time-dependent behavior of the DUT.

  • This Application Note describes characterization of devices used in radar systems with pulsed signals. The emphasis is on measurements using vector network analyzers (VNAs), signal generators, vector signal generators and spectrum analyzers.

  • This document describes the typical measurements performed on mixers and how they can be implemented on the ZVA Vector Network Analyzer with the ZVA-K4 Frequency Conversion option. The document describes the concept and setups required to perform Conversion Loss, Isolation, Intermodulation and Reflection measurements.

  • The converters offered for the R&S®ZVA family extend the network analyzers' frequency range up to 325 GHz. This Application Note describes typical measurements on millimeter-wave mixers and millimeter-wave frontends. It also discusses a signal identification method that enables spurious measurements to be performed in the millimeter-wave range using an R&S®ZVA network analyzer in conjunction with a converter.

  • The R&S® ZVA-Z110 converters offered for the R&S® ZVA family enable network analysis in the W band (75 GHz to 110 GHz). In this Application Note, measurements with three or four converters will be discussed. Test configurations for such measurements have so far been implemented only with coaxial connector systems for a frequency range up to approx. 40 GHz. The term 'multiport measurements' was created for this type of measurements.

  • The converters offered for the R&S® ZVA family extend the vector network analyzers' frequency range to include the millimeter-wave range (EHF band). This Application Note describes the R&S® ZVA-Z110 converters. They cover the W band (75 GHz to 110 GHz). Several measurement examples are included, explaining in detail how to configure a converter-based vector network analyzer system.

  • This application note describes the noise figure measurement using the R&S Vector Network Analyzers of the ZVA and ZVT series. It explains the concept of measuring noise figure without the need for a characterized noise source. Furthermore, it discusses different measurement applications and the respective setup and implications. Some examples guide through the instrument setups and show measurement results as well.

  • This application note describes the suitability of the R&S®ZVM and R&S®ZVK as multichannel microwave receivers for antenna measurements and RCS measurements including measurements on pulsed signals. Application examples describe the measurement possibilities on pulsed signals using the R&S®ZVM/ZVK as stand-alone units. In addition, various R&S®ZVM/ZVK-based antenna measurement systems of the March Microwave company are presented in detail.

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