Time domain analysis with VNA

Time domain analysis with VNA
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Time domain analysis with VNA, Screenshot

Key facts

  • Rise time resolution from 9 ps
  • Formats: lowpass impulse and step, bandpass impulse
  • Windowing/time gates: rectangular, hamming, Hann, Bohman, Dolph-Chebychev
  • Signal integrity test function with eye diagram

Time domain and distance-to-fault measurements

The time domain and distance-to-fault options display discontinuities, reflection factors or impedance versus delay/length. The TD option includes step and impulse response, lowpass/bandpass, frequency spacing and gated S-parameters. A wide selection of windows can be used to optimize the time domain response and suppress sidelobes due to the finite sweep range. Time gating and transforming back to the frequency domain eliminates unwanted responses.

Features & benefits

Supported formats

The right format for the right application

The Rohde & Schwarz time domain option supports the following formats: lowpass impulse and step, bandpass impulse. The easy-to-use bandpass mode works with any set of a harmonic grid. The lowpass mode offers higher resolution factors in the DC value information.

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Windowing/time gating

Optimize measurement results with windowing and gating

The finite sweep range in frequency domain measurements with discontinuous transitions at the start and stop frequency broadens the impulses and causes sidelobes (ringing) in the time domain response. Windowing can reduce this effect and optimize the time domain response. A time gate is used to eliminate unwanted responses that appear on the time domain transform. An active time gate acts on the trace in time domain and frequency domain representations.

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Signal integrity

Valuable insights into the signal integrity of your design

The enhanced time domain option enables the R&S®VNA to implement a "virtual" signal generator for generating multilevel PAM signals (NRZ, PAM-4, PAM-8, PAM-16), including simulated lowpass behavior. The eye diagram calculated from the DUT's measured S-parameters provides an extensive overview of the system's signal integrity. Further building blocks for pre-emphasis, jitter, noise and equalization enable synthesization of the transmission system's transmitter and receiver parts.

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Time domain resolution

Optimum resolution for optimum results

The Rohde & Schwarz time domain options offer a minimum resolution of up to 18 ps with an ambiguity range of up to 1.5 µs depending on the instrument of choice. Rise time resolution is as narrow as 9 ps. For more information, see the comparison table.

Available models

Available models
Models
Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
Distance to fault
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution

R&S®ZNA-K2

Order number 1332.5336.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
67 GHz / 100,001
Distance to fault
-
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
ZNA-K20
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
30 ps / 15 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
1.5 µs

R&S®ZVAB-K2

Order number 1164.1657.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
110 GHz / 60,001
Distance to fault
-
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
-
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
18 ps / 9 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
55 µs

R&S®ZNB-K2

Order number 1316.0156.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
40 GHz / 100,001
Distance to fault
ZNB-K3
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
ZNB-K20
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
50 ps / 25 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
2.5 µs

R&S®ZNBT-K2

Order number 1318.8425.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
40 GHz / 100,001
Distance to fault
ZNBT-K3
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
ZNBT-K20
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
50 ps / 50 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
2.5 µs

R&S®ZND-K2

Order number 1328.5393.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
8.5 GHz / 5001
Distance to fault
ZND-K3
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
-
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
235 ps / 117 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
6.25 µs

R&S®ZVL-K3

Order number 1306.0201.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
13.6 GHz / 4,001
Distance to fault
ZVL-K2
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
-
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
147 ps / 73 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
2.94 µs

R&S®ZNL-K2

Order number 1323.1819.02

Supported VNA
Maximum frequency/maximum # of points
6 GHz / 100,001
Distance to fault
ZNL-K3
Enhanced time domain w/eye diagram
-
Maximum resolution [continuous sweep]/rise time
333 ps / 166 ps
Maximum ambiguity range @ maximum resolution
16.7 µs

Available options

General
Product
Description
R&S®ZNA-K20

Order number 1332.4746.02

Description

Extended time domain analysis

incl. eye diagram, for R&S®ZNA

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