Applications & White Papers for LTE / LTE-Advanced

  • The Internet of Things (IoT) is considered the driving force of current and future wireless communications. In release 13, 3GPP has specified Narrowband-IoT (NB-IoT) as a new physical layer. This application note gives a short introduction to NB-IoT and shows the easy measurements with Rohde & Schwarz instruments.

  • Phase stability over time is a key characteristic for phase-coherent signals. A common 1 GHz reference signal maintains high phase stability between the RF outputs of multiple R&S®SGT100A SGMA vector RF sources.

  • The new IP connection security analysis solution for the R&S®CMW500 platform identifies IoT and mobile communications devices’ IP connection vulnerabilities in an early stage of development.

  • LTE is becoming the predominant wireless technology. Among several new features of this standard, the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology offers various advantages.

    It improves the throughput, extends the reach, reduces interference and improves the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) with beamforming. LTE supports various modes in order to optimize the transmission settings.

    An LTE MIMO base station consists of a baseband unit, a remote radio head (RRH) and an array of up to eight antennas. The RRH upconverts the digital signals of the baseband unit into analog signals for each antenna.

  • Rohde & Schwarz mobile network testing solutions enable operators to efficiently increase network capacity via hardware-related, capacity-enhancing features such as antenna tilt optimization, carrier aggregation, 4x4 MIMO and 6-sector sites.

  • As part of Release 13, 3GPP has specified a new radio interface, the Narrowband Internet of Things (NBIoT). NB-IoT is optimized for machine type traffic. It is kept as simple as possible in order to reduce device costs and to minimize battery consumption. In addition, it is also adapted to work in difficult radio conditions, which is a frequent operational area for certain machine type communication devices. Although NBIoT is an independent radio interface, it is tightly connected with LTE, which also shows up in its integration in the current LTE specifications.

    In this whitepaper we introduce the NB-IoT technology with an emphasis on the tight connection to LTE.

  • LTE is under continuous development. Release 10 (LTE-Advanced) introduced carrier aggregation (CA) as the primary enhancement. Releases 11 and 12 add several new components to LTE. Some are enhancements to existing features (such as improvements to CA), while others are completely new concepts, such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP).

    This application note summarizes the Rohde & Schwarz test solutions for LTE-Advanced according to Releases 11 and 12 using vector signal generators, signal and spectrum analyzers and the wideband radio communication tester.

  • This white paper summarizes significant additional technology components based on LTE, which are included in 3GPP Release 12 specifications. The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of commercial networks is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology ever. As other cellular technologies LTE is continuously worked on in terms of improvements. 3GPP groups added technology components according to so called releases. Initial enhancements were included in 3GPP Release 9, followed by more significant improvements in 3GPP Release 10, also known as LTE-Advanced. Beyond Release 10 a number of different market terms have been used. However 3GPP reaffirmed that the naming for the technology family and its evolution continues to be covered by the term LTE-Advanced. Therefore LTE-Advanced remains the correct description for specifications defined from Release 10 onwards, including 3GPP Release 12.

  • The R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator combined with the R&S®FSW signal and spectrum analyzer offers fast and simple power amplifier testing including envelope tracking and digital predistortion, effectively replacing complex test setups.

  • The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of commercial networks is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology. As other cellular technologies LTE is continuously worked on in terms of improvements. 3GPP groups added technology components into so called releases. Initial enhancements were included in 3GPP Release 9, followed by more significant improvements in 3GPP Release 10, also known as LTE-Advanced. Beyond Release 10 a number of different market terms have been used. However 3GPP reaffirmed that the naming for the technology family and its evolution continues to be covered by the term LTE-Advanced. I.e. LTE-Advanced remains the correct description for specifications defined from Release 10 onwards, including 3GPP Release 12. This white paper summarizes improvements specified in 3GPP Release 11.

  • Due to its outstanding performance the R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator is ideal for testing MIMO receivers in a vast variety of applications offering maximum usability at minimum form factor. It can generate up to eight antenna signals simultaneously in its digital baseband – all standard-compliant and with antenna-specific coding. In addition, it can simulate the complete MIMO transmission channel with up to 32 fading channels, sufficient to emulate higher-order MIMO configurations such as 3x3, 4x4, and 8x4.

    This application note explains how to use the SMW for testing higher order MIMO systems by presenting different key applications.

  • Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology is an integral part of 3GPP E-UTRA long term evolution (LTE). As part of MIMO, beamforming is also used in LTE. This application note provides a brief summary of the transmission modes (TM) in LTE and describes the beamforming measurements for base stations (BS) and user equipment (UE). The T&M options using various Rohde & Schwarz instruments are also presented.

  • LTE – the fastest growing mobile radio standard – had its beginnings in 3GPP Release 8. Initial improvements and new features were implemented in Release 9. This Application Note describes the T&M methods for LTE Release 9 features using Rohde & Schwarz instruments.

  • This application note helps the user to configure a Rohde & Schwarz vector signal generator for LTE FDD repeater conformance testing. It explains step by step how to set up the baseband signal for the various test cases defined in the 3GPP Technical Specification 36.143.

    The R&S®SMx vector signal generators provide predefined, LTE-conform test models and are therefore ideal for LTE repeater conformance testing. The test cases in TS 36.143 can be set up with a single instrument which provides all necessary test signals including the four specified repeater stimulus signals.

  • This application note provides an application program for level alignment, test automation and reporting with PESQ, POLQA and delay measurements on the Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV or R&S®UPV66.

  • Integrated end-to-end data solution with IP traffic analysis and protocol statistics allows detailed analysis of data traffic generated by IoT and mobile devices.

  • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) is an integral part of LTE. Vector signal generators and signal & spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz support LTE measurements with up to 4 antennas. This Application Note covers 2x2 MIMO in the LTE downlink. Remote control programming is demonstrated by examples for a free-of-charge program. Forum Link

  • This application note and associated application software may be used to conduct psychoacoustic speech quality evaluation for Voice over LTE (VoLTE) connections. The measurements are based on recommendations ITU-T P.862 and ITU-T P.863, respectively.

  • This whitepaper provides an overview of the WLAN offload in LTE as standardized by 3GPP, as well as the enhancements for Wi-Fi standardized by IEEE and the Wi-Fi Alliance. It also describes access methods in the joint network, treats the security, and describes IP mobility. In addition network discovery and selection are explained.

  • LTE-Advanced comprises multiple features enhancing the basic LTE technology firstly specified in 3GPP Release 8. LTE including the LTEAdvanced improvements was approved by ITU to comply with IMT-Advanced requirements and thus being a true 4G mobile communication system. The different technology components of LTE-Advanced have different market priorities and require different testing strategies. This application note summarizes the Rohde &Schwarz test solutions for LTE-Advanced (Release 10) using Vector Signal Generators, Signal and Spectrum Analyzers and the Wideband Radio Communication Tester.

  • Even with the introduction of HSDPA and HSUPA, evolution of UMTS has not reached its end. To ensure the competitiveness of UMTS for the next 10 years and beyond, UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) is being specified in 3GPP release 8. LTE, which is also known as Evolved UTRA and Evolved UTRAN, provides new physical layer concepts and protocol architecture for UMTS. This application note introduces LTE technology and testing aspects.

  • The 3GPP TS 36.521-1 “Radio transmission and reception” LTE User Equipment (UE) conformance specification defines the measurement procedures for LTE terminals with regard to their transmitting characteristics, receiving characteristics and performance requirements as part of the 3G Long Term Evolution (3G LTE) standard. This application note describes how to use the LTE Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) measurement functionality provided by the R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester to perform LTE transmitter and receiver measurements according to this test specification.

  • Although the commercialization of LTE technology began in end 2009, the technology is still being enhanced in order to meet ITU-Advanced requirements. This white paper summarizes these necessary improvements, which are known as LTE-Advanced.

  • This application notes introduces the Multi-Standard Radio Analyzer function of the R&S®FSW and shows how it performs the measurement on multi-standard radio transmitters. It reveals interactions caused by the coexistence of signals of different cellular standards and localizes the root cause. With an example of a base station signal consisting of three radio access technologies (GSM/WCDMA/LTE FDD) it shows how easy interactions can be found. The R&S®FSW is the ideal tool for trouble shooting tasks with its combination of a large bandwidth and the versatile Multi-Standard Radio Analyzer in one measurement instrument.

  • 3GPP Release 9 Technical Specification (TS) 37.141 covers multistandard radio base station conformance testing. Multistandard radio includes four standards of mobile communications: GSM, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, and LTE. This application note introduces the concept of multistandard radio base stations as well as solutions for transmitter and receiver tests based on Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and Rohde & Schwarz signal and spectrum analyzers.

  • This white paper describes the POLQA® algorithm implemented in the R&S®UPV Audio Analyzer and shows an example hardware setup for standard independent audio measurements.

  • This application note shows how to perform LTE terminal block error rate (BLER) and throughput tests under fading conditions with the R&S®CMW500 Protocol Tester and the R&S®AMU200A Fading Simulator.

  • MIMO technologies are an essential component of state-of-the-art mobile radio systems and are key to achieving extremely ambitious capacity goals that include providing stable data rates in the two- to three-digit Megabit per second range over a broad coverage area. However, the effectiveness of these technologies is not always guaranteed. A channel state matrix can provide the information needed to determine whether spatial multiplexing is possible for multilayer data transmission. Simple indicators for evaluating the mobile radio channel are derived from the channel matrix. This white paper presents these parameters and discusses them based on simulated and real coverage measurement results.

  • This document describes the highlights of LTE scanning functionality of R&S®TSMW. In an FAQ style, it explains briefly the background of LTE and leads to the important measurements that have to be done in a proper network roll-out.

  • The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of operators implementing the technology is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology. The same way GSM and WCDMA have been enhanced with additional features over time, LTE is continuously worked on. Initial enhancements have been included in 3GPP Release 9 and are described in this white paper.

  • Spectrum that was previously reserved for TV broadcasting is being freed up in many countries for use under the new Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile radio standard (keyword: 'digital dividend'). As a result, numerous coexistence scenarios are possible. So network operators and manufacturers from both the mobile radio and the broadcast sector have a vital interest in avoiding any interference and performing in-depth testing of their products. Rohde & Schwarz offers a wideranging product portfolio for such applications. This Application Note presents Test & Measurement equipment for the broadcast and mobile radio sector and discusses some possible test setups.

  • Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology is an integral part of 3GPP E-UTRA long term evolution (LTE). As part of MIMO, beamforming is also used in LTE. This white paper discusses the basics of beamforming and explains the ten downlink and two uplink MIMO transmission modes in LTE Release 12.

  • This application note describes how to set up 3GPP FDD and LTE multicell and multi-UE scenarios with the R&S®SMU200A with a focus on routing and leveling of the baseband signals. Furthermore, it describes in detail how to determine the correct AWGN settings, i.e. how to calculate the required signal-to-noise ratio for the various scenarios.

  • This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE).

  • This application note explains the fundamentals of the cell search and cell selection and reselection procedures required for both modes of UMTS Long Term Evolution: FDD and TDD. It describes how to generate and analyze the required signals using Rohde & Schwarz test and measurement solutions. The application note also shows how to perform interoperability tests and terminal conformance tests according to the baseline of the 3GPP specifications for protocol conformance and Radio Resource Management (RRM).

  • Verification of baseband data is an important step in the early development phase of LTE/LTE-A-ready products. Comparison values for baseband data (test vectors) from other sources can be very useful in order to verify the correct implementation of the standard. Option K81 for the R&S®SMx200A vector signal generator offers sample data for LTE at the bit level. The reference data enables users to test their own implementation of the specification. The LTE bit stream verification program shown here uses data generated by this option and offers a (bitwise) comparison with bit streams generated for an LTE downlink signal. Therefore it demonstrates, how easy the option R&S SMx-K81 can be integrated into the simulation and design process during the development of LTE/LTE-A handsets or base stations.

  • 3GPP TS36.141 defines conformance tests for EUTRA base stations (eNodeB). Release 12 (LTEAdvanced) added several tests, such as those for contiguous and non-contiguous multicarrier and/or carrier aggregation (CA) scenarios.

    This application note describes how all required transmitter (Tx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 6) can be performed quickly and easily by using signal and spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz. A few tests additionally require signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz.

    Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.

    The LTE base station receiver (Rx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 7) are described in Application Note 1MA195.

    The LTE base station performance (Px) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 8) are described in Application Note 1MA162.

  • Fading in the baseband of the R&S®SMW200A signal generator is well proven and widely accepted for testing any mobile radio standard. However, there are applications where an RF signal must be faded.A versatile RF Fading Simulator can easily be built using an R&S®FSW, R&S®FSQ, R&S®FSG, R&S®FSV signal analyzer with Digital Base Band Interface or with the instrument combination R&S®TSMW / R&S®IQR and an R&S®SMU signal generator with digital baseband inputs and fading simulator option. Note describes how.

  • Multiple antenna systems, known as MIMO systems, form an essential part of today’s wireless communications standards. The multi-antenna technology efficiently boosts the data throughput without requiring additional bandwidth or transmit power and has thus become a key technology. Rohde & Schwarz offers compact and versatile MIMO test solutions with realtime fading including simulation of channel correlations.

    This application note explains how to set up Rohde & Schwarz signal generators for 2x2, 4x2 and 2x4 MIMO tests with a focus on signal routing, synchronization of the generators, and leveling.

    Please note that there is a successor application note available: 1GP97. It explains how to use the R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator for testing higher order MIMO systems such as 3x3 and 4x4.

  • 3GPP TS36.141 defines conformance tests for EUTRA base stations (eNodeB). Release 12 (LTEAdvanced) added several tests, such as those for PUCCH format 2 and PUSCH with TTI bundling and enhanced HARQ pattern.

    This application note describes how all required performance tests (TS36.141 Chapter 8) can be performed quickly and easily by using vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz.

    Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.

    The LTE base station transmitter (Tx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 6) are described in Application Note 1MA154.

    The LTE base station receiver (Rx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 7) are described in Application Note 1MA195.

  • This application note describes how to verify and validate a LTE (FDD) RF chipset using R&S® SMU200A vector signal generator, R&S® FSQ signal analyzer and R&S® EX-IQ Box. The related signal generation as well as signal analysis is described

  • The test case wizard for signal generators simplifies LTE base station receiver and performance testing in line with 3GPP TS 36.141 Release 8 by providing complete and automatic configuration of the instrument.

  • The R&S®FSW signal and spectrum analyzer provides the high dynamic range needed to accurately measure the ON/OFF power of your transmitter in accordance with 3GPP TS 36.141.

  • The drive test solution from Rohde & Schwarz features convenient data export to visualize your radio network performance in Google Earth.

  • In combination with the R&S®FSH handheld spectrum analyzer, the R&S®EX-IQ-Box digital signal interface module significantly simplifies RRH installation and inspection in distributed network architectures.

  • Signal generators and analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz are the ideal solution for testing your RRH not only at the RF, but - using the R&S®EX-IQ-Box - also via the digital I/Q interface

  • Reliable testing of HARQ feedback and UL timing adjustment on LTE eNBs with the R&S®SMW200A simplifies eNB performance testing and eliminates the need for test UEs

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