Testing of Bluetooth® LE and Bluetooth® Classic

Today, classic Bluetooth® is implemented in most mobile phones and laptops to enable wireless headset connectivity or connectivity between mobile phones and other devices for synchronization. Most new cars already offer a Bluetooth® enabled hands-free calling system as standard or optional equipment. Bluetooth® LE with its extremely low power consumption, very fast pairing and worldwide use of the 2.4 GHz band addresses the market for sensors for sports, health and fitness, and also for watches. Bluetooth® LE has already become the dominating technology for all kinds of wearable devices that typically use smart phones as a gateway to the Internet.

  Classic Bluetooth
Bluetooth® LE
  Basic rate Extended data rate Low energy
Spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM band
Modulation Header: GFSK
Data: GFSK
Header: GFSK
Data: π/4-DQPSK or 8DPSK
Header: GFSK
Data: GFSK
Channels 79 40
Channel spacing 1 MHz 2 MHz
Interference avoidance Adaptive FHSS
(1600 hops/s over max 79 channels)
Adaptive FHSS
(1600 hops/s over max 37 channels)
Error detection/correction FEC CRC
Advertising Advertising sequence 3 advertising channels
Network Scattered pico nets Pico net
Voice support Yes No
Max. data rate 1 Mbit/s 3 Mbit/s 1 Mbit/s

Test requirements according to Bluetooth® SIG

Developers of Bluetooth® enabled devices use ready-to-go chips or modules for easy integration of Bluetooth® connectivity into their device. But each device design is slightly different. There are several factors in the final design, such as antenna design, power supplies, other wireless communications chips or the final housing, that influence the overall communications performance.

Therefore it is absolutely necessary to test each and every Bluetooth® enabled device to verify the required performance and to ensure conformance with Bluetooth® SIG standards and regulatory requirements. Testing of Bluetooth® RF performance and quality can be quite easy. For Bluetooth® LE devices, Bluetooth® SIG has specified a direct test mode to easily control transmitter and receiver tests.

Bluetooth® LE transmitter and receiver tests specified by Bluetooth® SIG:

Bluetooth® LE transmitter tests
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-01-C
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-02-C1)
Output power
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-03-C
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-04-C1)
In-band emissions
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-05-C Modulation characteristics
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-06-C
TP/TRM-LE/CA/BV-07-C1)
Carrier frequency offset and drift
Bluetooth® LE receiver tests
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-01-C
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-02-C 1)
Receiver sensitivity
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-03-C C/I and receiver selectivity performance
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-04-C 2) Blocking performance
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-05-C 2) Intermodulation performance
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-06-C Maximum input signal level
TP/RCV-LE/CA/BV-07-C PER report integrity

1) Removed from PF PHY Bluetooth® test specification in RF-PHY.TS.4.2.2 on December, 22nd, 2015.

2) Requires an additional signal generator.


Setup for Bluetooth® RF prequalification testing using Bluetooth® LE direct test mode
Setup for Bluetooth® RF prequalification testing using Bluetooth® LE direct test mode

Classic Bluetooth® devices offer a similar functionality for testing by chip-specific (non-standardized) interfaces or by using classic Bluetooth® signaling functionality.

Regulatory test requirements

In addition to standards requirements testing, the devices need to be tested against the regulatory requirements for devices operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. This is a result of the popularity of the unlicensed ISM band where Bluetooth®, WLAN/Wi-Fi and ZigBee operate side by side in the same frequency spectrum as ANT+, the LPWAN technology RPMA, baby phones and microwave ovens. The long list of test requirements includes a maximum RF output power of 20 dBm, power spectral density for wideband modulations of less than 10 dBm, a TX sequence duration of less than 10 ms, and a spectrum emission mask for unwanted out-of-band transmitter emissions.

Typical test setup for regulatory conformance testing as supported by the R&S®TS8997
Typical test setup for regulatory conformance testing as supported by the R&S®TS8997

As a result of these conformance tests, it could be necessary to take a deeper look at the whole occupied spectrum to identify problems such as hidden interferers, wrong hopping sequences or faulty carrier sensing that result in poor performance on some interfaces. Analyzing such types of problems requires a detailed view of the whole spectrum of interest in realtime over a defined time interval.

It becomes even more complicated when different wireless technologies are operating in the same device. Integrating several wireless communications technologies in an extremely small device is one of the main challenges for RF designers. Therefore verification of co-existence of different wireless technologies is very important, i.e. how well do the transmitter and receiver of a radio access technology perform in the presence of another technology.

T&M solutions from Rohde & Schwarz

The R&S®CMW wireless communications tester platform supports Bluetooth® up to version 5. It covers the classic Bluetooth® signaling function and all Bluetooth® LE transmitter and receiver tests as specified by Bluetooth® SIG. Some test cases require an additional signal generator such as the R&S®SGS100A RF source. The R&S®CMWrun sequencer software tool eases conformance testing by automatically executing all Bluetooth® SIG test cases. Options for fast and comprehensive production testing of Bluetooth® enabled devices speed up the manufacturing process. Bluetooth® test functions are also available for all major Rohde & Schwarz test instruments, including signal generators and signal analyzers. The test instruments support Bluetooth® as well as other non-cellular standards and all major cellular standards in one box.

Products for Classic Bluetooth® and Bluetooth® LE

  • R&S®CMW270 Wireless Connectivity Tester
    • The radio communication tester for non-cellular technologies that supports Bluetooth® and WLAN signaling in one box
    • Qualified by Bluetooth® SIG for RF testing
    • Fast and accurate RF tests on Bluetooth® devices in line with Bluetooth® core specifications v1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0+HS, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 5
    • Support of all 38 RF test cases for prequalification of Bluetooth® basic rate (BR), enhanced data rate (EDR) and Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in combination with R&S®CMWrun test sequencer software
    • Extremely fast spectrum measurements for optimization of Bluetooth® RF designs
  • R&S®CMW290 Functional Radio Communication Tester
    • Functional radio communication tester that supports Bluetooth®, WLAN and all cellular technologies such as LTE, WCDMA and GSM signaling and non-signaling applications in one box
    • Qualified by Bluetooth® SIG for RF testing
    • Fast and accurate RF tests on Bluetooth® devices in line with Bluetooth® core specifications v1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0+HS, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 5
    • Support of all 38 RF test cases for prequalification of Bluetooth® basic rate (BR), enhanced data rate (EDR) and Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in combination with R&S®CMWrun test sequencer software
    • Extremely fast spectrum measurements for optimization of Bluetooth® RF designs
  • R&S®CMW100 Communications Manufacturing Test Set
    • Efficient production tester for non-signaling applications that supports Bluetooth®, WLAN and all major cellular technologies in one box
    • Parallel testing on up to eight RF ports with minimum space requirements and footprint
    • Fast and accurate RF tests on Bluetooth® devices in line with Bluetooth® core specifications v1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0+HS, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 5
    • Optimized test times and maximum capacity utilization ensure high production throughput
  • R&S®CMW500 - Production Test
    • Market-leading radio communication tester that supports Bluetooth® signaling, WLAN and all major cellular technologies in one box
    • Qualified by Bluetooth® SIG for RF testing
    • Fast and accurate RF tests on Bluetooth® devices in line with Bluetooth® core specifications v1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0+HS, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 5
    • Support of all 38 RF test cases for prequalification of Bluetooth® basic rate (BR), enhanced data rate (EDR) and Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in combination with R&S®CMWrun test sequencer software
    • Extremely fast spectrum measurements for optimization of Bluetooth® RF designs
  • R&S®CMWrun Sequencer Software Tool
    • Ready-to-use solution for configuring Bluetooth® test sequences by remote control
    • Easy and straightforward configuration of test sequences
    • Easy and straightforward configuration of test sequences
    • Remote control for the R&S®CMW family
    • Comprehensive result report
    • Provides beneficial knowledge before doing more complex system tests or validation
  • R&S®FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer
    • Complex Bluetooth®/EDR measurements in line with Bluetooth® RF test specification 2.0 at a key stroke
    • Measurement of power, modulation quality and spectrum
    • Support for different packet types DH1, DH3, and DH5 and power classes 1 to 3
  • R&S®SMBV100A Vector Signal Generator
    • Bluetooth® signal generation in accordance with version 2.1, including EDR and BLE
    • Support for all three transport modes and of all packet types
    • Generation of signals in accordance with the Dirty Transmitter Test specification
  • R&S®TS8997 Regulatory Test System for Wireless Devices
    • Measurements in line with ETSI EN 300 328 v1.8.1 and ETSI EN 301 893 v1.7.1 required by the R&TTE directive for the European market
    • Support of all test cases in line with ETSI EN 300 328, including frequency hopping
    • Conducted measurements for devices with antenna connector
    • Radiated measurements using R&S®DST200 and R&S®CMW-Z10 for devices with integrated antenna

Want to learn more?

Thank you.

Your request was successfully sent!

We will get in touch with you soon.

Your Rohde & Schwarz Team

Contact Form

Please enter your inquiry.

Please tell us how we can address you.
Contact information

Please enter your first name.

Please enter a valid e-mail address.

Please enter your company name.

Please enter your postal code.

Please enter your name.

Please enter your phone number.

Please enter your country.

Please enter your city name.

Please enter your street.

Please enter your number.

(e.g. 2nd floor, rear building)

If I no longer wish to receive such information by e-mail, mail or phone, I can terminate the use of my data for promotional purposes by sending a message to campaigns@rohde-schwarz.com stating my e-mail address and phone number.

Any personal data will always be processed in accordance with the Rohde & Schwarz Statement of Privacy.

Security Response Code
show captcha

The input was not correct.
Do not enter data in this field
*Mandatory Field
Thank you.

Your request was successfully sent!

We will get in touch with you soon.

Your Rohde & Schwarz Team

Request Information
Topic: Bluetooth

Please enter your inquiry.
Contact information

Please tell us how we can address you.

Please enter your first name.

Please enter a valid e-mail address.

Please enter your company name.

Please enter your postal code.

Please enter your name.

Please enter your phone number.

Please enter your country.

Please enter your city name.

Please enter your street.

Please enter your number.

(e.g. 2nd floor, rear building)
Additional Information


Security Response Code
show captcha

The input was not correct.
*Mandatory Field
Thank you.

Your request was successfully sent!

We will get in touch with you soon.

Your Rohde & Schwarz Team

Feedback
Get in touch with Rohde & Schwarz!
Please tell us which topic.

Please enter your inquiry.
Contact information

Please enter your first name.

Please enter a valid e-mail address.

Please enter your name.
Security Response Code
show captcha

The input was not correct.
Do not enter data in this field
*Mandatory Field
Contact Us

International Website