R&S®RTO1000 Digital Oscilloscope

Scope of the art

This is a discontinued product
Please note the following successor product(s):
Truly uncompromised performance

Precise measurements due to very low noise Level

Minimizing noise was a key goal when designing the R&S®RTO2000. All aspects were considered, from balanced BNC-compatible inputs with 18 GHz bandwidth to extremely low-noise frontends to high-precision A/D converters. The low inherent noise of the oscilloscopes enables precise measurements, even at the smallest vertical resolutions.

Oscilloscope measurement range and bandwidth RMS noise floor at 50 Ω (typ.) RMS noise floor at 50 Ω (typ.) in % of measurement range
10 mV measurement range (1 mV/div), 1 GHz bandwidth 100 μV 1 %
100 mV measurement range (10 mV/div), 1 GHz bandwidth 200 μV 0.2 %
1 V measurement range (100 mV/div), 4 GHz bandwidth 3.6 mV 0.36 %

Full measurement bandwidth even at 1 mV/div

With their input sensitivity of up to 1 mV/div, R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes offer high vertical resolution. Other oscilloscopes attain such high input sensitivity only by employing software-based zooming or by limiting the bandwidth. In contrast, the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes show the signal's real test points, even at 1 mV/div. And their full measurement bandwidth can be used. With the high definition option, the R&S®RTO2000 is the first instrument in its class to offer vertical scaling of 500 μV/div at a bandwidth of 1 GHz.

Fast acquisition even with deep memory

Many applications require long record lengths, for instance for analyzing serial buses or switched-mode power supplies. The signal processing in the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscope is optimized to achieve high acquisition rates, even during long recordings. Users benefit from smooth operation and fast results.

Oscilloscope performance for deep memory

Flat frequency response for accurate measurement results

For accurate signal acquisition, R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes feature a flat frequency response over the oscilloscope's entire specified bandwidth, ensuring accurate measurement results regardless of the signal's frequency components. The Gaussian falloff in frequency response leads to low overshoot and precise acquisition of signal edges.

Typical frequency response of the R&S®RTO1044

Low crosstalk even with high-frequency signals

The excellent channel-to-channel isolation in R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes ensures that the measurement signal from one channel has the least possible influence on the signals from the other channels. Their characteristic of > 60 dB up to 2 GHz is outstanding.

Excellent shielding for optimum channel-to-channel isolation.

Probes: voltmeter with 0.1 % accuracy integrated into the probe

Active probes from Rohde & Schwarz have an integrated voltmeter (Probes) that displays the DC value of a measurement signal, irrespective of the oscilloscope scaling. The R&S®RT-ZD10/20/30/40 differential probes additionally display the common mode voltage.

Probes: high DC measurement accuracy, independent of instrument settings and in parallel with the measurement channel.

Accurate highly sensitive triggering

The unique digital trigger system from Rohde & Schwarz uses a common path for the measurement signal and the trigger. The oscilloscopes determine if the trigger condition has been met by directly analyzing the digitized signal independently of the current sampling rate. As a result, Rohde & Schwarz oscilloscopes have an extremely low trigger jitter and high measurement accuracy. With the optional R&S®RTO-B4 oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), time stability can be improved to up to 0.02 ppm, for deep memory acquisition and for acquisition with high trigger offset.

Trigger hysteresis
Comparison of digital and analog triggering architecture

High trigger sensitivity at full bandwidth

The digital trigger validates every acquired sample against the trigger definition. For this reason, R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes trigger on even the smallest signal amplitudes. In order to achieve stable triggering regardless of signal noise levels, the user can set the trigger hysteresis for the oscilloscopes. And thanks to the low-noise frontends, the oscilloscopes can also trigger on signals with vertical input sensitivities of < 10 mV/div at full measurement bandwidth.

Adjustable digital filter for the trigger signal

The digital trigger architecture used by the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes makes it possible to adapt the cutoff frequency of the digital lowpass filter to the signal to be measured. The same filter settings can be used for both the trigger signal and the measurement signal. As a result, RF noise on the trigger signal can be suppressed, for instance while simultaneously capturing and displaying the unfiltered measurement signal.

Setting the digital filter.
The unique architecture of the digital trigger permits stable triggering, even on signal details such as this 0.4 % overshoot (high definition option).

Serial pattern trigger for all protocols

The serial pattern trigger allows users to detect defined sequences of up to 128 bit, making it possible to acquire and analyze special protocol patterns, such as headers or protocol data from serial interfaces. Either a separate clock signal can be used, or the hardware clock data recovery option can be used for embedded clock signals.

Serial pattern trigger set for a specific bit sequence with the R&S®RTO-K13 clock data recovery option.

One million waveforms per second: fault finding instead of guesswork

A digital oscilloscope acquires signals in two steps. First, it samples the measurement signal for a defined period of time and stores the samples. It then processes the values and displays them graphically. During this period, the oscilloscope is “blind” to the measurement signal. For conventional digital oscilloscopes, this blind time is more than 99.5 % of the total time at a maximum sampling rate. Measurements take place in less than 0.5 % of the total time, while signal faults occurring during this blind time remain hidden to the user. The less often the faults occur, the less likely they are to be discovered.

Acquisition cycle with blind time comparison (R&S®RTO2000 versus conventional architecture)

Compared with conventional oscilloscopes, the blind time of the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes is up to 500 times shorter. This is due to the core component of the instrument – an ASIC designed specifically for intensive parallel processing that can process the input signal in a minimum amount of time and quickly prepare it for display on the screen. R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes acquire, analyze and display up to one million waveforms per second. As a result, these instruments find faults significantly faster and more reliably.

High measurement speed, even for complex analysis functions

Max. acquisition rates for analysis functions
Analysis function Maximum acquisition rate
None > 1 000 000
Histogram > 1 000 000
Mask test > 600 000
Cursor measurements > 1 000 000

The resulting high acquisition and processing rates ensure smooth operation and fast, conclusive results, even during complex analyses.

Due to the high acquisition rate of one million waveforms per second, R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes find rare signal faults very quickly.
Outstanding range of capabilities

Wide selection of measurement functions

R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes offer over 90 measurement functions. The automated measurements are organized by type into amplitude and time measurements, jitter, eye, histogram and spectral measurements.

Available analysis options
Statistics display of average value, minimum/maximum value and standard deviation
Histogram graphic display of events as histogram; definition of measurement range and resolution for the histogram (manual or automatic)
Trend long-term trend function for analyzing slowly developing variations in measurement results (easy identification of thermal dependencies within measurement results)
Track (optional) analysis of rapidly changing measurement results, e.g. periods; display of results over the entire acquisition period
Gating restriction of the measurement range to a specific signal range (manually defined or linked to existing cursor or zoom ranges)
Reference lines definition of reference lines (manual, automatic or averaged); optional display in the waveform
Waveform graphic display of the results on the waveform, e.g. for documentation purposes
Multiple measurements definition of the maximum number of measurements per waveform
Measurement display with statistics (bottom), histogram and long-term trend.

QuickMeas: key measurement results at the push of a button

The QuickMeas function, which simultaneously displays the results of several measurement functions for the current signal, is unique for an instrument in this class. The set of functions can be individually defined with up to eight measurements and saved for later analysis. The QuickMeas function is quickly and easily accessed via the toolbar.

Activation of QuickMeas to display key signal characteristics.

Search and navigation: finding faults fast

Comprehensive search functions simplify the analysis of long signal sequences. Users can search waveforms based on different criteria, such as signal fault, signal pattern and protocol contents. Depending on the specific application, users can search on analog or digital channels, on reference or math waveforms and on serial, protocol-based buses. All events are shown in a table with timestamps. The user can then examine the individual events in a zoom window and navigate between the events. For example, it is possible to view the number of glitch errors in a table, with each individual glitch in the waveform correlated against other signals.

Powerful search function for detailed display of events.

History function: looking back in time

Where does the interference pulse in the signal come from? What caused the loss of a data bit? Finding the real cause of a problem is often only possible by looking at the history of a signal sequence.

The R&S®RTO2000 history function provides access to previously acquired waveforms at the press of a button. This allows users to analyze the measurement data stored in memory. They can scroll through the individual acquisitions with the history player or use the persistence mode to display them superimposed. This powerful function facilitates searches for signal faults over all acquisitions. One timestamp per waveform clearly identifies when events took place. Various analysis tools such as automatic measurements, FFT, mask tests and a search function are available for analyzing past acquisitions.

History function for looking back in time.

Industry-leading mask test: quick configuration – reliable results

Mask tests quickly reveal whether a specific signal lies within defined tolerance limits, providing a pass/fail evaluation to assess the quality and stability of a device under test. Signal anomalies and unexpected results are easy to identify by stopping the measurement if the mask is violated. Defining masks is easy and flexible with the R&S®RTO2000. With just a few keystrokes, the user can generate a mask from a reference signal or define masks consisting of up to eight segments. To get started quickly, the mask segments can be generated on the screen using the mouse or a finger. The positions of the mask points can be optimized later in the mask test dialog box.

Fast mask test: Within ten seconds, more than six million waveforms are acquired, evaluated and displayed.

FFT-based spectrum analysis: powerful, fast and user-friendly

The FFT in the R&S®RTO2000 is hardware accelerated and fast. It conveys the impression of a live spectrum. Using the persistence mode, rapid signal changes, signal interferers and weak superimposed signals can easily be made visible. The low-noise frontend and the A/D converter's high effective number of bits (> 7) provide an outstanding dynamic range, so that even weak signal faults can be identified without difficulty. The ability to overlap FFT frames enables the R&S®RTO2000 to detect intermittent signals such as pulsed interferers. Like in spectrum analyzers, FFT operation is based on entering the center frequency, span and resolution bandwidth. Measurements such as total harmonic distortion (THD) and power spectrum density (PSD) can also be performed.

The ability to perform a mask test in the FFT frequency spectrum is unique. This is useful for finding rare events such as sporadic EMI interferers and correlating them to the time domain signal.

The FFT function stands out in terms of accuracy, speed, functionality and usability.

Save results fast

Storage options
Contents waveform complete
    selection (zoom, cursor, gate, manual)
    number of acquisitions
    history memory
Evaluation   histograms
    measurement results
    long-term trend
Format measurement data binary, .XLS, .CSV, 1 to 4 channels
  graphics .PNG, .JPG, .BMP, .TIF, .PDF
Drivers   VXi, LabView, LabWindows, .NET

Waveforms can be saved in various file formats or downloaded via Ethernet for later analysis using MATLAB® or Excel, for example. The screen content can also be printed or saved. The download feature on the R&S®RTO2000 is unique. When set to a special operating mode, the oscilloscopes continuously acquire 100 waveforms per second, evaluate the waveforms and transmit them to a PC via Ethernet.

Sophisticated analysis with up to three waveforms per channel

R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes simultaneously provide different displays of up to three waveforms per measurement channel. The type of data decimation and the waveform arithmetics can be combined. Users can, for example, effectively debug by comparing the original sample points directly against the averaged waveform and the envelope.

Up to three waveforms per channel
Optimized user interface
Control elements
Master sophisticated applications

On-site configuration of hardware options

The R&S®RTO2000 can be quickly adapted to new requirements. The unique plug & play concept makes upgrading and retrofitting of options easy. All hardware options, such as the digital channels for logic analysis or the 10 MHz OCXO reference clock, can be inserted into the slots on the rear panel without opening the oscilloscope. This approach has many advantages:

  • Easy extensibility for future tasks
  • On-site installation of options in minutes
  • No need for alignment or recalibration after installation of options

Software applications on demand

The base unit features all functions of a state-of-the-art oscilloscope for general applications. For special requirements, the base unit can be extended with software options at any time:

  • Triggering and decoding of serial protocols such as I2C, SPI or CAN
  • Automatic compliance tests on fast interfaces, including USB or Ethernet
  • Detailed options for jitter analysis, power analysis and RF analysis

Always up-to-date

Rohde & Schwarz continually offers regular firmware updates to add additional basic functions to the R&S®RTO oscilloscopes. The oscilloscope's firmware can be updated using a USB storage device or the LAN port. Free firmware updates can be simply downloaded from the Internet at www.rohde-schwarz.com. Your R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscope always remains up to date.

Exchangeable hard disk or solid state disk

The R&S®RTO2000 hard disk can be exchanged without any tools. Confidential data remains protected. Depending on the particular application, either a conventional hard disk drive (HDD) or a solid state disk (SSD) can be chosen.

No tools are needed to remove the hard disk.

More signal details thanks to high time resolution over the entire memory depth

With a sampling rate of 5 Gsample/s, the R&S®RTO-B1 mixed signal option (MSO) provides a maximum time resolution of 200 ps for all digital channels. This sampling rate is available over the entire memory depth of 200 Msample per channel. As a result, the MSO option is capable of detecting critical events such as narrow or widely separated glitches.

The R&S®RTO-B1 option turns the R&S®RTO into a mixed signal oscilloscope.

Precise triggering on signal events

The R&S®RTO-B1 option offers numerous triggers for debugging and analysis, such as edge, width, pattern and serial pattern. These triggers can be combined with holdoff conditions. For the trigger source, the user can choose between individual digital channels or bus signals. The digital channel resolution of 200 ps makes these channels a precise trigger source.

High acquisition and analysis rate for fast fault finding

The hardware-based signal processing of the digital measurement waveforms extends from acquisition and triggering to analysis functions such as cursor functions and measurements, and even includes the visualization of the results. This enables an acquisition and analysis rate of more than 200 000 waveforms per second, ensuring that rare events are detected quickly and reliably.

Straightforward display of digital signals

The R&S®RTO-B1 option supports 16 digital channels and simultaneous decoding of up to four parallel buses. Each bus is represented by an icon on the edge of the screen. The icons can be dragged and dropped onto the screen using the Rohde & Schwarz SmartGrid function. The icon clearly shows the current status of all activated logic channels (high, low, toggle) irrespective of the other oscilloscope settings.

The user configures the parallel buses according to the actual bus topology. The decoded buses are displayed in a bus format or as an analog waveform. For clocked buses, the decoded contents can also be displayed in a table.

Ramp signal of a 4-bit ADC with analog and digital channels, and an SPI bus signal with digital channels.

Increased resolution for precise measurement of small signal amplitudes

High definition describes the capability of R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes to work with applications for which a high vertical resolution is essential. This is especially the case when low-voltage components on a signal that also exhibits high-voltage components need to be analyzed in detail. One example is the characterization of switched-mode power supplies. The voltages across the switching device must be determined during the off and on times within the same acquisition. Because the voltage variations can be several hundred volts, a high resolution of more than 8 bit is essential for precise measurement of small voltage components. Another example is amplitude-modulated signals with low modulation index as can be found in radar applications.

16-bit vertical resolution available

The R&S®RTO-K17 software option increases the vertical resolution of the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes to up to 16 bit – a 256-fold improvement over 8-bit resolution. To achieve this higher resolution, the signal is lowpass filtered after the A/D converter. The filter reduces the noise, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Users can adjust the bandwidth of the lowpass filter from 10 kHz to 1 GHz to match the characteristics of the applied signal. The lower the filter bandwidth, the higher the resolution.

Resolution as a function of the filter bandwidth
Filter Resolution
Inactive 8 bit
1 GHz 10 bit
500 MHz 12 bit
300 MHz 12 bit
200 MHz 13 bit
100 MHz 14 bit
50 MHz to 10 kHz 16 bit
Noise reduction

The increase in resolution leads to sharper waveforms, showing signal details that would otherwise be masked by noise. To be able to analyze these signals in detail, the input sensitivity of the oscilloscopes is increased to 500 μV/div. Thanks to the low-noise frontend and the highly accurate single-core A/D converter, R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes have an excellent dynamic range and measurement accuracy. Switching on high definition mode allows users to benefit from even more precise measurement results.

The high definition mode offers crucial advantages over high resolution decimation (also supported by the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes). First, the user knows exactly what signal bandwidth is available due to explicit lowpass filtering. Second, there are no unexpected aliasing effects. Since the high definition mode is not based on decimation, the increase in resolution is not accompanied by a reduction in the sampling rate. When the high definition mode is on, the full sampling rate can be used, ensuring the best possible time resolution. The high definition mode also permits users to trigger on the signals with increased resolution, whereas high resolution decimation only takes place after the trigger unit.

Zoomed-in peak of a sine wave: the high definition mode is not activated. Only the quantization levels can be seen in the zoom window
When the high definition mode is switched on, the zoom window shows that another very low-amplitude sine wave is superimposed on the signal.

Realtime triggering on smallest signal details

The increased resolution in high definition mode makes it possible to reveal even the smallest signal details. The next step in the debugging process is to trigger on these details for in-depth analysis. Whether this is possible depends greatly on the capabilities of the trigger system. Is it sensitive enough to benefit from the high-resolution signal? The unique Rohde & Schwarz digital trigger system offers the required sensitivity. Each of the up to 16-bit samples is checked against the trigger condition and can initiate a trigger. This means that R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes are able to trigger on even the smallest signal amplitudes and isolate relevant signal events.

The high sensitivity of the Rohde & Schwarz digital trigger makes it possible to trigger on signal overshoots of less than 9 mV, as can be seen in this example. At a vertical scale of 130 mV/div, this corresponds to only a fraction of one display division.

High acquisition rate and full functionality for fast measurement results

Switching on the high definition mode does not compromise measurement speed or functions. Since the lowpass filtering, which improves resolution and noise suppression, is implemented in realtime in the oscilloscope’s ASIC, the acquisition and processing rates remain high. The oscilloscope enables smooth operation and measurement results are available quickly.

All analysis tools, such as automatic measurements, FFT and the history mode, can also be used in high definition mode.

Easy configuration

R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes offer a variety of tools for serial interface analysis. The configuration for any given protocol is quickly accomplished. Navigation between the individual dialog boxes is smooth thanks to crosslinks. The Find Reference Levels function makes it particularly easy to define the decision level for the logical signals.

The user conveniently configures the serial buses according to the actual protocol topology.

Isolating protocol events

Protocol-specific definition of the trigger conditions is very important for tracking down protocol errors. The R&S®RTO2000 enables triggering on specific protocol content, e.g. addresses or data, as well as on protocol errors.

Clear display of data

When displaying decoded data, the individual protocol areas within the logical signals are color-coded, and address and data content can be displayed in hex, bin or ASCII format. The Rohde & Schwarz SmartGrid function supports flexible placement of the signals in a suitable diagram. Telegrams can additionally be displayed in a user-designed table.

The individual areas of the decoded protocol frame are color-coded to provide a clear overview. The details can also be displayed in a table.

Support of labels

For some standards, labels make complex protocol data easier to comprehend. R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes support the industry standards CAN-dbc and FIBEX for CAN and Flex- Ray™. The symbols are displayed both on the waveform and in the table. The CAN bus permits additional trigger settings based on these symbols.

Special measurement functions and measurement wizard for fast results

For characterizing switched-mode power supplies and power electronics, the R&S®RTO-K31 power analysis option provides automated measurement functions, guides the user through the test sequence and documents the measurement results. This option facilitates the analysis of the turn on/turn off behavior, the internal transfer function, the safe operating area (SOA), the output signal quality and switching losses.

After a measurement function is selected, the measurement wizard guides the user through the test setup. Detailed illustrations help the user make the correct connections. The oscilloscope then configures itself automatically and delivers quick results. The configuration can be modified or the oscilloscope can be fully manually configured in order to document specific signal details.

Measurement wizard for fast and easy testing.

Standards for limiting the harmonic current

Depending on the application, different standards for limiting the harmonic current must be met when developing switched-mode power supplies. The R&S®RTO-K31 option supports the user during testing of all conventional standards: EN 61000-3-2 classes A, B, C, D, MIL-STD-1399 and RTCA DO-160.

Easy and clear documentation of measurement results

Each result can be added to the test report simply by pressing a button. The test report documents the setup and configuration. Users can flexibly define the level of detail for the report and customize the layout, for example by adding a company logo. The available output formats are PDF and RTF.

Extensive result documentation.

Precise results

R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes are ideally suited for jitter measurements. The sensitive, broadband, low-noise frontend combined with the high-precision, single-core A/D converter ensures exact results. Another strength of R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes lies in their wide range of analysis options. For example, FFT analysis of the track for the cycle-cycle jitter makes it possible to determine interference frequencies.

Histogram of the rising edge of a clock signal.

Wizard for easy test configuration

All automatic jitter measurements are combined into a single group. By using the jitter wizard, typical measurements can be configured in just seconds. The user can select how the results will be displayed, e.g. as a histogram.

Jitter wizard for easy and quick configuration of the jitter measurement.

Powerful analysis options

R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes simplify detailed investigation of signals by providing a variety of graphical display options. The following displays and analysis options are available:

  • Long-term trend: display of measurement results from different acquisitions in a separate figure to permit detection of slowly developing trends, such as thermal changes (automatic or manual scaling)
  • Track: graphic display of a measurement over the entire acquisition time, e.g. frequency; display of results versus acquisition time
  • Histogram: summation of measurement results in a bar graph; automatic or manual setting of number of histogram bins
  • FFT on track: FFT analysis on the track curve of a measurement result; derivation of additional information such as the frequency of interference sources through jitter analysis

Clock data recovery for analyzing embedded clock signals

A number of serial interfaces use an embedded clock. The receiver must recover the clock signal from the transmitted signal using clock data recovery. The R&S®RTO-K13 clock data recovery option simplifies characterization of these types of signals. It is part of the unique digital trigger architecture of the R&S®RTO2000 and permits realtime clock recovery. As a result, eye and histogram measurements can be run continuously over a long period of time without postprocessing. The advantage: the hardware-based clock data recovery functions at the full acquisition rate without any restriction of the oscilloscope functions. A unique feature is the option to display the recovered embedded clock and analyze it in detail using all jitter measurements.

Track spectrum (cycle-cycle jitter) for identifying interference frequencies.
The clock data recovery option permits a continuous mask test on serial interfaces with an embedded clock.

Serial pattern trigger

By combining the R&S®RTO2000with the optional hardware- based clock data recovery or the parallel clock signal, the user can trigger on any serial interface telegram pattern of up to 16 byte with bit rates between 100 kbit and 2.5 Gbit. All analysis options remain available. For example, users can use jitter measurements to determine the influence of specific bit sequences on the protocol clock.

Measurement of the time interval error (TIE) of the embedded clock for different bit sequences (010000X10000001). The lower histogram shows that the TIE differs based on the bit sequence.

Easy configuration and automatic control

R&S®ScopeSuite is generic compliance test software that runs on the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscope or on a separate PC with Windows 7.

User data, all test setup settings and measurement report definitions are easy to configure. The limit editor allows the user to individually adjust standard-specific test limits. R&S®ScopeSuite controls the measurement settings and test sequence on the R&S®RTO2000 and guides the user through all selected tests based on the test setup. Detailed, image-based instructions make it easy to correctly connect the oscilloscope and the probes to the test fixture and the device under test.

Detailed step-by-step instructions.

Flexible test execution

For debugging during development or for stability tests, the user can repeat tests as often as required using the Repeat – Keep Previous function. The results are documented in the measurement report. In the case of an operating error, the user can discard the measurement result and repeat the test sequence using the Repeat – Discard Previous function.

The test execution control allows tests to be repeated for multiple tests (Repeat – Keep Previous) and to be redone in case of operating errors (Repeat – Discard Previous).

EMI tests during development

When debugging EMI problems in electronic circuits, development engineers face the challenging problem of quickly and accurately identifying and eliminating the sources of unwanted emissions. One of the most important test instruments during circuit development is the oscilloscope. Many problems can be eliminated during development by using oscilloscopes for EMI debugging.

High dynamic range and sensitivity

The R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscope is a powerful tool for EMI debugging. Its high dynamic range and input sensitivity of 1 mV/div at full measurement bandwidth make it possible to detect even weak emissions. The powerful FFT implementation is well suited for the required analysis in the frequency domain thanks to its easy operation, high acquisition rate and functions such as color coding of the spectral display according to the frequency of occurrence. In combination with a near-field probe, EMI problems can be quickly located and analyzed.

Overlap FFT processing

Visualizing sporadic emissions

One special feature is overlap FFT. The oscilloscope splits the captured time domain signal into overlapping segments and calculates an individual spectrum for each segment. These spectra are then color-coded according to their frequency of occurrence and combined to a complete spectrum. The complete spectrum provides a very good overview of the type and frequency of occurrence of EMI emissions. Even sporadic signals are visible.

Another highlight is the flexible definition of masks in the frequency domain using the mask function. The stop-on-violation condition stops the acquisition exactly at the signal that violated the frequency mask. This solves the most challenging EMI problem – detecting and analyzing sporadic emissions.

Correlation between frequency and time

The gated FFT function of the R&S®RTO2000 oscilloscopes makes it possible to restrict FFT analysis to a user-defined region of the captured time domain signal. Users can move this time window across the entire signal to determine which segments of the time domain signal correlate to which events in the spectrum. This makes it possible, for example, to correlate unwanted emissions from switched-mode power supplies with overshoots from the switching transistor.

Gated FFT displays the spectrum for defined time segments of the acquired signal. The two time segments that have undergone FFT processing are highlighted in gray (the resulting spectra are displayed on the left and right below). Gated FFT makes it possible to correlate intermittent EMI emissions to the time domain signal. The red box shows the part of the spectrum caused by an unwanted emission, and the green boxes show a part of the spectrum that is constant and therefore present in both spectra.
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