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The Rohde & Schwarz documents & articles offer a variety of information material.

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  • Introduction to MIMO

    Modern radio communication systems have to provide higher and higher data rates. As conventional methods like using more bandwidth or higher order modulation types are limited, new methods of using the transmission channel have to be used. Multiple antenna systems (Multiple Input, Multiple Output – MIMO) gives a significant enhancement to data rate and channel capacity. This application note gives an introduction to basic MIMO concepts and terminology and explains how MIMO is implemented in different radio communications standards.

  • Measurement of phase-, timing- and gain offset between 2 signals using multiple spectrum analyzers

    This application note describes how to measure the coherence (phase-, timing and gain-differences) between two RFSignals using Rohde&Schwarz spectrum analyzers, a Rohde&Schwarz signal generator and the R&S FS-Z10 Coherence Unit.

  • In-Device Coexistence Interference

    In-Device Coexistence InterferenceMicrowave Journal - Wireless Communications Rohde & Schwarz in the

    This download is available in the following languages:

  • 802.11ad – WLAN at 60 GHz

    Data rates in the range of several Gigabit/s are needed to transmit signals like uncompressed video signals. Amendment 802.11ad to the WLAN standard defines the MAC and PHY layers for very high throughput (VHT) in the 60 GHz range. The specification 802.11-2016 has defined additional modulation and codings schemes for the 11ad single carrier part to increase the data rate. The OFDM part is obsolete.This white paper provides an introduction to the technology behind 802.11ad and highlights the test and measurement requirements.

  • WLAN Traffic Offload in LTE

    This whitepaper provides an overview of the WLAN offload in LTE as standardized by 3GPP, as well as the enhancements for Wi-Fi standardized by IEEE and the Wi-Fi Alliance. It also describes access methods in the joint network, treats the security, and describes IP mobility. In addition network discovery and selection are explained.

  • WLAN IEEE 802.11ac – Wideband Signal Testing

    Offering bandwidths up to 160 MHz, the signal generators and analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz are ideal for testing IEEE 802.11ac signals

  • Wideband mm-Wave Signal Generation and Analysis

    Generation of wideband digital modulated signals in V-band and above is a challenging task and typically requires a set of multiple instruments. This application note aims at simplifying the task and looks into the analysis part as well. Latest signal and spectrum analyzers like the R&S®FSW67 are first to allow use in V-band up to 67 GHz without external frequency conversion. Up to 2 GHz of modulation bandwidth can be covered using the option R&S®FSW-B2000.Former application note 1MA217 describes V-band signal generation and analysis up to 500 MHz modulation bandwidth. This application note expands modulation bandwidth to 2 GHz but also an alternative setup is used to cover the necessary bandwidth and to obtain enhanced purity in signal generation.

  • Fast Scalar Network Analysis Using a Signal Generator and a Power Meter

    This document presents a simple procedure for network analysis that is more cost-effective than the use of scalar network analyzers. It allows the accurate measurement of the transmission characteristics of filters, amplifiers and frequency converters over a large frequency and dynamic range. In order to reach very high measurement speeds, Rohde & Schwarz signal generators are operated in 'List Mode', and Rohde & Schwarz power meters are operated in 'Buffered Mode.' The required programming for the signal gene­rator and the power meter is illustrated by excerpts from a Visual Basic program which is available, free of charge, upon request.

  • WLAN Tests According to Standard 802.11a/b/g

    The Application Note summarises all measurements for WLAN test, according to the IEEE Standards 802.11a, b and g. For each measurement, an instrument list, test setups, test method, comments, typical results and implementation hints are included. The enclosed free of charge software provides all IEEE 488 bus sequences ready to run or copy into your own test environment.

  • IEEE 802.11ax Technology Introduction

    This white paper provides an introduction to the technology used in the 802.11ax amendment to the 802.11 standard and an overview of receiver and transmitter test requirements. IEEE 802.11ax, also known as High Efficiency Wireless (HEW), provides mechanisms to more efficiently utilize the unlicensed spectrum bands (2.4 and 5 GHz) and improve user experience.

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