Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity has put together a glossary of the most important terms related to network, application and endpoint security. It also refers to some aspects of digitization, IT security, compliance and data protection in general.

Item Meaning
API Application programming interface or application interface that enables systems to be linked to programs at source level
APT attacks Advanced persistent threats (APT) aim at large-scale infection of computers, spread of malware, theft of login credentials or the formation of a botnet (see 3. Botnet).
Backdoors Backdoors are access points included by software developers to circumvent security features, in case system access is required.
Botnet A botnet is a remotely controlled network of several thousand computers, tablets or mobile devices that are misused to shut down websites by way of distributed denial-of-service (see 12. DDoS) attacks. Botnets are also used to send spam emails or steal data and are sometimes rented out to third parties.
Data security Encompasses all information protected by data protection laws, plus sensitive data such as corporate secrets and information related to development and research.
Data protection Includes protection of personal information that either directly identifies or allows for identification of a person. Since May 2018, it is governed by the European General Data Protection Regulation in order to improve consumer protection.
Digital fingerprint Also called the hash value of a cryptographic hash function, it describes a checksum that allows the immediate validation of a data set.
Digital certificate Data set that includes information such as names, additional records and a signature of a person, group or system.
Digitization Conversion of analog to computerized processing and the increased usage of computers in general.
Digital signature Checksum proving the identity of a person and the integrity of information, created through a private key.
Digital transformation Digitization of work processes and the required strategic preparation and planning.
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) Programmed and scheduled attacks on internet services, intended to overload the server and cause a downtime. Most commonly executed by botnets massively targeting net components or servers.
Emotet Malware that extracts email contacts and content to further spread itself. If a computer is infected with Emotet, it will continue downloading other malware. It is paramount to warn against carelessly opening email attachments or links. “The safest browser in the world” offers protection against Emotet.
GDPR Regulation of the European Union for the unification of the rules for the processing of personal data, valid since May 25th 2018
KRITIS Critical infrastructure (or critical national infrastructure (CNI) in the UK) which can be a plant, a system or a component and are essential for the maintenance of social functioning
Malware Malicious software that is designed to prevent and disrupt the use of computers and data (see Ransomware).
NIS Law to implement the European directive to ensure high network and information security; in force since 06/29/2017. Defines measures within the European Union to ensure a high level of security for information and network systems
PCI DSS Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. A set of rules in payment transactions that is supported and used by leading credit card organizations to process secure transactions
PSD2 The second payment service directive paves the way for open banking. Customers should be given more freedom in choosing online financial services
Public cloud Public clouds allow you to work independently from software and hardware by provisioning applications, infrastructure, computing power and storage space.
Ransomware Malware that encrypts data or denies access to computers with the intention of extorting a ransom. A distinction is made between two different kinds of ransomware: file-encrypting ransomware that encrypts data on a computer, and screen-locking ransomware that locks the screen and prevents access to data and the system. Ransomware can target any operating system, but Windows-based systems are currently the most common target.
Real-time Input, transfer and output of data between devices without delay of transmission.
Web Application Firewall A process that protects websites and web applications. This application firewall analyzes traffic between clients and servers at the application level, monitors, filters and blocks HTTP traffic and is either installed as a standalone firewall or installed on the server.
Zero day exploits Security loopholes in a software that are taken advantage of on the same day they occur. Thus, “zero days” pass between the loophole becoming public and the attack.

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